Strung together by complex networks, telephones, mobile phones and internet-linked PCs, the global system touches nearly all of us. It allows us to speak, share thoughts and do business with nearly anyone, regardless of where in the world they might be.
Telecom operating companies make all this happen. Not long ago, the telecommunications industry was comprised of a club of big national and regional operators.
Over the past decade, the industry has been swept up in rapid deregulation and innovation. In many countries around the world, government monopolies are now privatized and they face a plethora of new competitors.
Traditional markets have been turned upside down, as the growth in mobile services out paces the fixed line and the internet starts to replace voice as the staple business. Telecom is less about voice and increasingly about text and images. High-speed internet access, which delivers computer-based data applications such as broadband information services and interactive entertainment, is rapidly making its way into homes and businesses around the world.
The fastest growth comes from services delivered over mobile networks. Of all the customer markets, residential and small business markets are arguably the toughest. Big corporate customers — concerned mostly about the quality and reliability of their telephone calls and data delivery — are less price-sensitive than residential customers.
Large multinationals, for instance, spend heavily on telecom infrastructure to support far-flung operations. They are also happy to pay for premium services like high-security private networks and videoconferencing.
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Telecom operators also make money by providing network connectivity to other telecom companies that need it, and by wholesaling circuits to heavy network users like internet service providers and large corporations. Interconnected and wholesale markets favor those players with far-reaching networks. Churn Rate: The rate at which customers leave for a competitor. Largely due to fierce competition, the telecom industry boasts — or, rather, suffers — the highest customer churn rate of any industry.
Strong brand name marketing and service quality tends to mitigate churn. ARPU levels get tougher to sustain competition, and increased churn exerts a downward pressure. ARPU for data services have been slowly increasing.
Broadband: High-speed internet access technology. Telecommunications Act: Enacted by the U. It is an expensive business; contenders need to be large enough and produce sufficient cash flow to absorb the costs of expanding networks and services that become obsolete seemingly overnight.
Transmission systems need to be replaced as frequently as every two years. By contrast, smaller players must pay for interconnection more often in order to finish the job. For little operators hoping to grow big some day, the financial challenges of keeping up with rapid technological change and depreciation can be monumental.
EBITDA provides a way for investors to gauge the profit performance and operating results of telecom companies with large capital expenses. Companies that have spent heavily on infrastructure will generally report large losses in their earnings statements. EBITDA helps determine whether that new multimillion dollar fiberoptic network, for instance, is making money each month, or losing even more.
By stripping away interest, taxes and capital expenses, it allows investors to analyze whether the baseline business is profitable on a regular basis. Investors should be mindful of cash flow. EBITDA gives an indication of profitability, whereas cash flow measures how much money is actually flowing through the telecom operator at any given period of time. Is the company making enough to repay its loans and cover working capital?
A telecom company can be recording rising profits year-by-year while its cash flow is ebbing away.Upstream data rate of 2. However, anticipating the continued evolution of optical modules, the TC layer must consider ratios up to handbookk Each port of the AWG is wavelength dependent and the optical transceiver on each ONT transmits optical signals in a specified wavelength determined by the port on the AWG.
It describes the signals, the physical media, and the mechanical and electrical interfaces. GEM can fragment its payload. MPCP is very flexible, easy to implement. A product by EFM Ethernet in the first mile. Link protection is also known as link aggregationwhich can protect the link and the same time, it can aggregate the traffic as well. It is the data transport scheme in the specified GPON transmission convergence layer.
The most important bit rate is 1. It is the case of multi-point control protocol MPCP. This group was restricted to study the G. Besides, the simple topology shown in the following illustration, PON can work in other topologies. Green field is used where a complete new deployment is required, whereas in handboko Brownfield deployment, existing infrastructure will be hnadbook. For this, it uses synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line; resultantly, each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
PMD generates electrical or optical signals depending on the nature of the physical medium connected. GPON aims at transmission speeds greater than or equal to 1. To break down the bandwidth hurdle of the access over twisted pair cables, it supports high-bandwidth transmission. It utilizes passive optical components. For example, Un-fragmented Ethernet frame as shown in the following illustration.
A PON technology based on Ethernet. The same fibers are used simultaneously in both the directions. The larger the diameter of the telephone, the longer the distance it could reach.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. FTTH Handbook. Reference to any products, services or technology does not constitute or imply its endorsement, sponsorship or recommendation by the FTTH Council Europe.
The information is provided on a professional best effort basis. Under the terms of this license you are free to copy and share this document, but you should not alter, transform or build upon it, or use it for commercial purposes. Third and fourth editions edited by Pauline Rigby, freelance editor. This is achieved in a variety of ways but education, and in particular through our best-practice publications, forms a key part of our work to accelerate the adoption of this critical technology.
The environment for operators, investors and utilities is more challenging than ever and ensuring that the best technology choices and investments are made is essential. Our Guides are intended as a forum where experiences and approaches can be shared throughout the world where they are accessible by new entrants and alternative operators whose aim is to drive real fibre networks across Europe.
The FTTH Handbook was first published in and since then has been reworked to update the content and bring clarity to the increasingly complicated choices now available to operators. This sixth edition covers every aspect of the network: from central office through to customer equipment; from passive to active equipment choices. This Handbook is a resource for you; we welcome feedback and suggestions on how we can further improve the content.
Extensive additional resources, case studies, reports and opinion pieces are all available on our website. I would like to extend our gratitude to all those that have contributed to the creation and evolution of this Handbook, and to the Deployment and Operations Committee that has compiled and written this comprehensive and useful document. The FTTH network environment FTTx Networks Architecture Not only do fixed access networks benefit from FTTH solutions, but advanced wireless networks do as well especially in regard to increased backhaul capacity.
In contrast to copper-based solutions, FTTH projects are facing multifarious challenges, involving everything from strategic planning to final operations. The FTTH Handbook introduces FTTH basics, such as architecture, topology and technologies, provides in- depth views into various technical issues, as well as providing much-appreciated technical solutions focusing on planning, deployment and operations.
This is the 6th edition of the Handbook. Every edition grows in complexity and detail as knowledge, experience and successful implementation of deployment by the contributors and members of the Council increase.
Collating this knowledge and experiences and detailing the success achieved within the covers of this Handbook, while preserving the impartiality of the Council, is a recurring challenge and requires the dedication of the Deployment and Operations Committee members.
The members of the Deployment and Operations Committee have made significant improvements to almost all the chapters of this edition. These changes are the result of broad and professional experience and provide a clearer structure, more precise definitions, updated methodologies and advanced technical solutions.
Furthermore, this edition also contains an additional chapter which addresses one of the most important issues: standardisation. In addition, this Handbook also provides an overview of FTTH standards in different areas and for the first time describes the workflow from Fibre in the Home to support, solving the FTTH deployment bottleneck at the customer-end.
One of the objectives of the Council is to create a professional arena which promotes FTTH based on internationally-accepted standards and which have been adopted and become the common value of the members.
This Handbook can only be used as a reference by our readers if they are willing to submit their views and opinions which the Committee will consider whether to implement into future releases. The main objective, which the editors are committed to maintaining, is its capacity to develop year after year to the benefit of all parties.Upstream traffic has not been exposed to other ONUs, so encryption is not needed.
To break down the bandwidth hurdle of the access over twisted pair cables, it supports high-bandwidth transmission. GEM provides a connection-oriented, variable-length framing mechanism for transport of data services over the passive optical vtth PON. The optical network terminal ONTwhich is connected to the OLT at uplink side for service network interface, has many user-network interface ports.
There are three categories or classes of components, which are based on power and sensitivity. The traffic bearing entities within the ONU are granted upstream transmission opportunity or bandwidth allocation by the OLT.
It describes the signals, the physical media, and the mechanical handbooj electrical interfaces. Larger the split ratio is for GPON, the more economical it is from cost perspective.
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The sublayer of physical coding PCS comprises codifications bit functions. For example — Video at a different wavelength. EFM technology allows different types of topologies to achieve maximum flexibility.
Encryption blocks are aligned to the GTC frame. It is the interface between PMD and the physical media. The mean signal transfer delay is the average of the upstream and downstream delay values between reference points. Active Method and Passive Method. Equipment venders focus on optimizing the function and practicability. Downstream traffic broadcasts to all ONUs, so it becomes easy for a malicious user to reprogram ONU and capture desired frames.
This standard allows service providers a variety of flexible and cost effective solutions for the provision of broadband Ethernet ftty in the access and the metro networks. PON system may be either symmetrical or asymmetrical. PMD generates electrical or optical signals depending on the nature of the physical medium connected.
For this, it uses synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line; resultantly, each signal appears the line only a fraction of time in an ahndbook pattern. Upstream data rate of 2.FTTH Handbook. Revision 1 Feb Ethernet Point-to-Point. Conventional Duct Infrastructure.
Feb Cable Joint Closures. Direct Buried Cable Infrastructure. Aerial Cable Infrastructure. Internal Cabling. Network Elements. Optical Splitters. Network Planning Guidelines. Operation and Maintenance Guidelines. This handbook has been developed to provide an understanding of all the elements associated with a Fibre-to-the-Home FTTH network infrastructure. Inside are details of the many different network infrastructure deployment options that can be considered when planning and building a FTTH network within Europe.
It is up to the network designer to decide which design methodology is the most appropriate to use.
This document is limited to providing and overview of existing technologies and should not be taken as a design guide. Optical fibre will be the main building block for future high capacity home broadband networks. Its transmission capacity is almost unlimited and unconditional compared to existing copper cabling systems.
Numerous financial models have shown little difference between the deployment costs of optical fibre and copper cables systems of equal capacity.Macquarie University Handbook At its simplest, the IoT is the idea that wireless communication and digital intelligence can be embedded into everything around us — clothing, vehicles, buildings, flowerbeds, even the ground beneath our feet.
Single fiber either in a ring or tree technology is shared, this "high-cost" capital deployment of fiber for several kilometers is lower than if the carrier were to deploy Documents Similar To FTTH Tutorial Passive Optical Network PONs do not require any power in the outside plant to power the filters or splitters, thereby lowering the overall operational cost and complexity.
See the any books now and if you don't have time and effort to see, you are able to social media book by ft press pdf Download Handbook for Robustness Validation - ZVEI book pdf free download link or read online here in PDF. All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don't worry about it. Strung together by complex networks, telephones, mobile phones and internet-linked PCs, the global system touches nearly all of us.
Upstream traffic has not been exposed to other ONUs, so encryption is not needed. Data on insertion loss of each fiber should be kept for future comparisons if problems arise or restoration becomes necessary.
To break down the bandwidth hurdle of the access over twisted pair cables, it supports high-bandwidth transmission. An FTTH network constitutes a fiber-based access network, connecting a large number of end users back to a central point known as an Access Node.
This handbook is only intended as helpful assistance to volunteers and staff. Fiber-To-The-Home is the most desired type of network in the world. The new plans feature standard download speeds of up to Mbps, with options to upgrade to Mbps and 1 Gbps.
Originally issued inits purpose was to provide an impartial source of information about the options available for deployment of optical fibre cable.
FTE provides end-to-end design, build, and support solutions for state-of-the-art networks, data centers, residential and commercial properties. Fiber to the home FTTHalso called "fiber to the premises" FTTPis the installation and use of optical fiber from a central point directly to individual buildings such as residences, apartment buildings and businesses to provide unprecedented high-speed Internet access.
Welcome to the Community Information Handbook. Enjoy upload speeds that are as fast as download speeds and unlimited usage — available on a large selection of packages. Mar 14, The new platform will help national policy-makers, regulators and industry stakeholders cope with increasing stress put on global networks during the COVID crisis. July 27, This site is like a library, you could find million book here by using search box in the header.
This handbook provides a hard copy for users, while a more in-depth listing of services are available at www. After the Japanese invaded Thailand inthe government split into a pro-Japan faction and a pro-Ally faction backed by the King.
Get this from a library! The Internet of Things sits at the intersection of sensors, networks, design, business models, and a wide range of industries. Recording data on a label inside the patchpanel or enclosure is common Listed below are the changes to the FCIC General Standards Handbook with significant content change.
These three questions will help us further improve the quality of the FTTH handbook.Rather than telling you how to install FTTx here, we will try to illustrate some of the ways that others have installed their systems and offer advice on how to design and install systems most efficiently.
This drawing also defines the network jargon for cables: a "feeder" cable extends from the OLT optical line terminal in the CO central office to a FDH fiber distribution hub where the PON passive optical network splitter is housed.
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It then connects to "distribution" cables that go out toward the subscriber location where "drop" cables will be used to connect the final link to the ONT optical network terminal. When FTTH using PONs first began being installed, it was considered a extension of regular telecom systems, where subscribers were being connected to a metropolitan system. Cabinets or pedestals containing the PON couplers were placed near a group of subscribers. Cables were pulled between the cabinet and the central office containing the PON system electronics and spliced on each end by the usual OSP installation crews and were tested as normally done.
On the subscriber end, drop cables were placed to the home and connected either by splicing or installing connectors APC to prevent reflectance problems. Drop cables could be installed aerially, underground or buried. Installing the cables through customer's yards created a problem as it is time consuming and disruptive to the customer.
Simple trenching was sometimes dropped in favor of directional boring, an expensive process. Connectors were installed either by fusion splicing on pigtails or using prepolished splice connectors.
After the cable plant was installed, the optical network terminal ONT was installed at the home. Some systems installed ONTs on the outside of the house, some inside garages, some inside the home. Some homebuilders built new homes with provision for the ONT inside the home and installed cabling and power to the same area to create a home prepared for broadband.
FTTH design: our updated detailed FTTH design document is now available.
See the examples below. After the ONT was installed and tested, it was necessary to complete the installation by connecting the customers phones, TVs and computers. In all, three or four groups of installers were needed to install a FTTH customer. A big breakthrough came with the development of prefabricated cabling systems sometimes call pre-terminated cabling that eliminated the need for most of the splicing.
Cables with weatherproof connectors were purchased made to the lengths needed and pedestals were factory made with connectors for the drop to the home and a cable ready to splice onto the cable installed from the central office.Methods of FTTH deployment 1. How to establish a broadband network.
The prefab drop cables could be run aerially, even lashed to current telephone wires. They were also small enough they could be pulled through small PVC conduit often installed to home in new construction. Most of the systems use multi-connector cables near the homes being connected so homes can be connected during the first install or later when more customers decide to take the service.
Aerial installation in Santa Monica, CA, using prefab cabling system. Closeup of the six-port drop. If the cable is underground, it will usually be pulled through conduit from connection to the distribution cable or the splitter to the home. Here a preterminated systems has two home drops connected to the distribution cable.
Underground installation of prefab cable system in Long Beach, CA.